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The study examined the socio-economic and household environmental factors that influences the differentials in childhood diseases prevalence among under-five children in Northern Nigeria. The study examined the pattern of childhood diseases in the Northern part of Nigeria; investigated the relationship between socio-economic factors and childhood diseases; and examined the association between environmental household factors and childhood diseases among under-five children. The study employed primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained through conduct of in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers of childbearing age with one or more births within the five years and whose children experienced childhood diseases two weeks preceding the survey. Three IDIs were conducted with mothers of childbearing age with under five children among thirty (30) women in three purposively selected local government areas in Kaduna, Kogi and Kano state across varied socio¬economic status. An interview guide was developed to elicit information based on the themes of the study. Content analysis was used to analyse responses from the IDI8. Secondary data for this study was extracted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health survey (NDHS) 2013. Data on women age 15-49 years with one or more birth within the last five years preceding the survey was extracted from a total of 4282 respondents. Secondary data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed the relationship between household environmental indices and childhood diseases. For diarrhoea, source of drinking water (x2= 0.62, p>0.05), types of toilet facility (x2= 4.53, p>0.05), type of cooking fuel (x2 =1.67, p>0.05) and use of mosquito nets (x2 = 14.72, p>0.05) were not statistically significant with incidence of diarrhoea, for malaria, source of drinking water ( x2 = 0.00, p>0.05), type of toilet facility (x2 = 5.43, p>0.05), types of cooking fuel (x2 = 5.21, p>0.05), use of mosquito nets (x2 = 4.45, p>0.05) were not significant with incidence of malaria. The results further showed source of drinking water (x2 = 2.97, p>0.05), use of mosquito treated nets (x2= 0.20, p>0.05) were not significantly associated with incidence of acute respiratory infections, however, type of toilet facility (x2 = 7.57, p