Representative Bureaucracy, Education, Latinx Students, African American Students, Academic Performance, Passive Representation, Active Representation, Academic Achievement
Gilmore, Danielle R.
The public education system is the largest and most common bureaucracy in the United States. This paper describes the effectiveness of applying representative bureaucracy within school systems to improve academic achievement for African American and Latinx students to reduce race-based academic achievement gaps. Results reveal representation school boards, administration, and teachers improves academic achievement because: (1) minority school leadership can advocate for programs and policies to support minority students, (2) increased representation creates enhanced cultural competence and shared understanding, and (3) minority teachers are better able to build relationships and connect to minority students which enables them to serve as mentors and advisors. Representation within schools increases funding for bilingual programs and academic achievement for African American and Latinx students. Thus, decreasing the race-based academic achievement gap requires identifying policies and practices to increase diversity among school leadership and the teaching workforce to support minority students holistically.